Archive for the ‘Collider Incidents’ Category

Collider Incidents

Saturday, May 24th, 2008

Existing colliders are many times less powerful than the Large Hadron Collider. And most physicists think that the much lower power existing head-on particle colliders have not created micro black holes. However there have been some incidents that hint that science may be close to creating micro black holes even with less powerful colliders, and papers published by MIT physicists argue that bosenova implosions of ultra-cold Bose-Einstein Condensates with Attractive Interactions could result in micro black holes of infinite density. However at least one author of one of those papers argues that the papers may be misleading. Our initial investigation indicates that the papers do appear to predict “real micro black holes”.

RHIC Fireball
For example, Horatiu Nastase of Brown University writes: “We argue that the fireball observed at RHIC is (the analog of) a dual black hole.” The RHIC fireball as a dual black hole by Horatiu Nastase: “… dual to gravitational interaction inside the black hole, deconfining quarks and gluons…”, “… core of the fireball is the pion field soliton=black hole interior…”, “… Most likely there will be no singularity for this black hole….”

The RHIC fireball is not believed to be a true micro black hole, but only the pre-cursor to, or the analog of a micro black hole. Creation of a true micro black hole has been predicted based on some theories to require at least 1 Tev of highly focused energy such as can be achieved with head-on collisions generated by the Large Hadron Collider.

Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) Bosenova Implosion
Nobel laureate Dr. Eric A. Cornell, who leads Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) research at the University of Colorado, wrote of the possibility of stable micro black hole creation as an explanation for missing atoms after an unexpected BEC bosenova implosion at the university of Colorado using naturally attractive Rb85 atoms, “probably not a black hole, more likely…“, though Dr. Cornell doesn’t think a micro black hole was created by one of his experiments, and he explains that the term “probably not” was merely a diplomatic response to that suggestion, and not meant to indicate a belief that micro black hole creation was plausible. Dr. Carl E. Wieman, who also shares the 2001 Nobel prize for Physics writes “I can state ABSOLUTELY CATEGORICALLY that it is totally inconceivable that a black hole could be produced by these phenomena.” However physicists at MIT published papers that appear to suggest (paraphrase) “probably a black hole“.

A difference of opinion appears to exist between the University of Colorado team and physics researcher’s at MIT including Masahito Ueda and Kerson Huang who conduct similar research, based on my understanding of related published material on the subject and communications with some of the physicists involved.

The unexplained Bosenova implosion of Bose-Einstein Condensate with attractive interactions involved a “super atom” at 3 nk (3 billionths of a degree above absolute zero) containing approximately 16,000 naturally attracting Rb85 atoms that were induced to repel to make the condensate stable. From the Wikipedia article on the subject:

When the scientists raised the magnetic field strength still further, the condensate suddenly reverted back to attraction, imploded and shrank beyond detection, and then exploded, blowing off about two-thirds of its 10,000 or so atoms. About half of the atoms in the condensate seemed to have disappeared from the experiment altogether, not being seen either in the cold remnant or the expanding gas cloud.

These atoms were compressed to a single giant atom while mutually repelling each other, and when the atoms were subsequently induced to attract to each other, the BEC unexpectedly imploded beyond detection then exploded and after the explosion thousands of atoms could not be accounted for, they unexpectedly and mysteriously vanished. BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION IN A DILUTE GAS; THE FIRST 70 YEARS AND SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS

This incident was named bosenova because of its similarity to a “core collapse supernova”.

“However, as yet there is no clear explanation of the energy and anisotropy of the atoms in the explosion, the fraction of vanished atoms, and the size of the cold remnant. One of the more puzzling aspects is that the cold remnant can be far larger than the condensate stability condition that determines the collapse point would seem to allow “

“The atoms that seem to have disappeared almost certainly still exist in some form, just not in a form that could be detected in that experiment. Two likely possibilities are that they formed molecules consisting of two bonded rubidium atoms, or that they somehow received enough energy to fly away fast enough that they left the observation region before they could be observed. They may also have undergone nuclear fusion.”

For a good start understanding what a Bose-Einstein Condensate is, I recommend Dr. Cornell’s high quality web site written in lay person’s terms with several interactive graphics describing Boes-Einstein Condensates

I found the following short article by Science@NASA to be very interesting. The article My Pet Neutron Star speaks of the desire of physicists to create micro black holes in the laboratory and how this might be accomplished.

Neutron stars and their cousins, white dwarfs and black holes, are extreme forms of matter that many scientists would love to tinker with — if only they could get one in their lab. But how? Researchers experimenting with a new form of matter called Bose-Einstein condensates may have found a way.

Is it plausible to believe that bosenova implosions from Bose-Einstein Condensates with attractive interactions might theoretically create the same type of micro black holes that some theories predict might be caused by head-on particle collisions above 1 Tev, and therefore the safety discussion with respect to creation of micro black holes in head-on colliders, which is currently being debated, might also relate to some forms of BEC experimentation? Papers published by the MIT team appear to indicate this.

Have any of these experiments shown any evidence that might tend to support or debunk Hawking Radiation theory? Unknown. Such experimental evidence might be of extreme interest as it relates to the current Safety debate concerning the Large Hadron Collider and predictions that the LHC might create micro black holes.

JTankers

Additional References Added June 9, 2008:

What Studies tend to predict that Micro-Black Holes might plausibly be formed from Bose-Einstein Condensate Bosenova Implosions?

    Instability of a Bose-Einstein Condensate with Attractive Interaction by Antonios Eleftheriou and Kerson Huang, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA (February 1, 2008)

“…local collapse to a state of infinite density.”
“We verify that the picture presented by Ueda and Huang is correct. For N > Nc , a “black-hole” does appear at the center of the trap”

Physicists researchers at MIT appear to suggest that laboratory created Bose-Einstein Condensate Bosenova implosions might result in the creation of micro black holes:

    Cold Trapped Atoms: A Mesoscopic System by Kerson Huang, Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT-CTP#3048

“A black hole opens up at the center, …density fluctuations becomes infinite
“The density in the black hole shoots up as time goes on, fed by waves of implosion

Physicists researchers at MIT appear to suggest that laboratory created Bose-Einstein Condensate Bosenova implosions might result in the creation of micro black holes:

    Instability of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an attractive interaction by Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139

“results are consistent with the formation of a “black hole” of infinite density fluctuations, as predicted by Ueda and Huang”

Theories proposed by Los Alamos Researchers indicate that black holes might contain a new form of matter that is less than infinitely dense, and may actually be similar to Bose-Einstein condensate matter.

    Los Alamos researcher says ‘black holes’ aren’t holes at all by James E. Rickman, elvis@lanl.gov, (505) 665-9203, LOS ALAMOS, N.M., April 21, 2002

“Mottola and Pawel suggest that while some degree of collapsing does take place in a dying star, the collapse proceeds only to a certain point. At that point, the intense gravity of the dying star transforms the star’s matter into an entirely new phase. Mottolla describes this phase as similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate, a phase of matter recently observed in a laboratory setting and the subject of scientific excitement in the past few years. “

However Nobel Laureates Dr. Eric A. Cornell and Dr. Carl E. Wieman argue that micro black holes would not be created from gravitational forces that exist with [normal] laboratory created Bose-Einstein Condensates (editor: as long as the BEC atoms continue to mutually repel such as with RB87, and for non-Bosenova implosions as far as I can determine), as detailed in the “The Alternate View” columns of John G. Cramer:

    Bose-Einstein Condensation, A New Form of Matter by John G. Cramer, Alternate View Column AV-77

“The BEC is so compact and dense that, with sufficient atoms added, a mini-black hole of atomic size should form. The BEC of Wieman and Cornell contained only a few thousand atoms of rubidium. The first BEC is a long way from any danger of black hole formation.”